With the execution of High Pontiff Theodosius II many of his clergyman who were of a younger stock dissented against the Diet of Johannesburg and the empire in general. When the duke of Lorraine allowed the group of dissenting priests and bishops to hold a synod in Metz the group of clergy rejoiced. Expecting to take refuge in Lorraine they named themselves the 'Lotharic Communion'. The Communion formed in 1593 and noted three Bishops, one of them being the Princeps and various priests, deacons and a small community of monastics. The community of dissenting clergy quickly became disenfranchised with Lorraine, as the duke chose to continue with the established sect of canonism. They sought refuge within the lords of the orenian rebellion, becoming the national faith of the Kingdom of Courland.